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Make practicing fun by doing a great variety of interactive exercises! So easy to enjoy An Introduction to Business English Details From the time that goods and services began to be traded in early kérelem társkereső tini, people have been thinking about business.
The lessons of the early traders resonate even today. Specialism revealed the benefits of economies of scale—that production costs fall as more items are produced.
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Even when barter was the norm, producers still knew it was advantageous to lower costs and raise the value of goods. In his text Meet präposition Visible Hand, Dr. Alfred Chandler divided business history into two periods: pre and post Before local, family-owned firms dominated the business environment. With commerce operating on a relatively small scale, little thought was given to the wider disciplines of business. The growth of the railroads in the mids, followed by the Industrial Revolution, enabled businesses meet präposition grow beyond the immediate gaze of friends or family, and outside the immediate locale.
To prosper in this new—and increasingly international— environment businesses needed different, and more rigorous, processes and structures. The geographic scope and ever-growing size of these evolving businesses required new levels of coordination and communication—in short, businesses needed management.
Все зависит от точной генетической схемы. Конечно, влияние на нее будет слабее - в следующем-то поколении. Ричард не договорил. Зевнув, он потянулся к ладони Николь. Они вместе спокойно посидели несколько минут, прежде чем Николь нарушила молчание.
As manufacturing moved from individual craftsmen to machinery, and as ever-greater scale was required, theorists such as Henri Fayol examined ever-more-efficient ways of operating. With the advent of production lines in the early s, business was characterized by standardization and mass production.
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Working conditions were poor and businesses ignored the sociological context of work—productivity mattered more than people. Through the work of psychologists Elton Mayo and Abraham Maslow, businesses began to recognize the value of human relations. Managers still focused on efficiency, but realized that workers were more productive when their social and emotional needs were taken care of.
For the first time, job design, workplace environments, teamwork, remuneration, and nonfinancial benefits were all considered important to staff motivation.
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In the period following World War II, business practice shifted again. Wartime innovation had yielded significant technological advances that could be applied to commerce.
Managers began to utilize quantitative analysis, and were able to make use of computers to help solve operational problems. Human relations were not forgotten, but in management thinking, measurability returned to the fore. The war had made the world seem smaller, and had paved the way for the global brand.
These newly emerging global brands grew as a result of a media revolution—television, magazines, and newspapers gave businesses the means to reach a mass meet präposition. Businesses had always used advertising to inform customers about products and to persuade them to buy, but mass media provided the platform for a new, and much broader, field—marketing.
By the s, marketing methods had shifted from simply telling customers about products to listening to what customers wanted, and adapting products and services to suit that. Initially, marketing had its critics.
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Meet präposition the early s hype about the product became more important than quality, and customers grew dissatisfied with empty claims. Guided by management theorists, such as W. Edwards Demming and Philip B. Crosby, quality was seen as the responsibility of the entire company, not just those on the production line.
Alfred Chandler progressed the study of business history from the purely descriptive to the analytical—his course at Harvard Business School stressed the importance of organizational capabilities, technological innovation, and continuous learning.
Taking their cue from Chandler, in the s and s management experts—such as Michael Porter, Igor Ansoff, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Henry Mintzberg, and Peter Drucker— encouraged businesses to consider their environments, to consider the needs of people, and to remain adaptable to change.
Den Syrienkrieg bestimmen nicht nur Präsident Assad und oppositionelle Gruppen. Viele Länder mischen mit - aus ganz unterschiedlichen Interessen: militärischen, religiösen, wirtschaftlichen oder sicherheitspolitischen. Die gehören den Revolutionsgarden an, schiitischen Milizen oder auch der massiv von Iran unterstützten Hisbollah.
Maintaining the conditions for business growth, and the correct positioning of product within their market, were considered key to business strategy. Moreover, what distinguished these gurus from their predecessors—who had tended to focus on operational issues—was a focus on leadership itself. Leadership in the context of business, these writers recognized, is no easy undertaking.
Корабль изменил свое направление. - Итак, мы возвращаемся к "морской звезде".
While early hype led to the failure of many online start-ups in the dot-com bubble of tothe successful e-commerce pioneers laid the foundations for a business landscape that meet präposition be dominated by innovation. From high-tech garage start-ups—such as Hewlett-Packard and Apple— to the websites, mobile apps, and social-media forums of the modern business environment, technology is increasingly vital for business.
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The explosion of new businesses thanks to technology also helped to expand the availability of finance. During the s and s finance had grown into a distinct discipline.